A laparoscopy (key-hole surgery) is a procedure to directly visualise the abdomen and pelvis by passing a telescope (laparoscope) through a small cut in the belly button. The procedure is done under general anaesthetic.
It is a useful procedure to investigate causes of pelvic pain and infertility. It is also useful to diagnose gynaecological conditions like endometriosis and adhesions (where tissues stuck together inside the abdomen and pelvis). Surgical procedures like excision of endometriosis, release of adhesions (adhesiolysis), removal of ovarian cysts, and even hysterectomy (removal of womb) can be carried out via laparoscopy.
The risks of serious complications are small. Uncommon risks include (but not limited to) damage to other organs such as bowels, bladder, uterus, blood vessels which may require immediate repair and open surgery. Other risks include bruising, pain, and infection.